Lumière bleue - l'opinion des EXPERTS
"The bottom-line answer is, at this time stay with conventional white-light fixtures. We have decades of experience indicating that these are effective and safe. As of the writing of this book, there is not one published study on the effectiveness of blue light for treating Winter Blues. Nor is there the long track record of safety. On the contrary, there is long-standing concern about potential toxicity of blue light to the eyes." Norman Rosenthal, MD, in WINTER BLUES (2005)
"elevated chronic exposure to light has been identified as a risk factor for development of ARMD (Age Related Macular Degeneration)…avoiding exposures to bright short-wavelength [blue] light is the simplest preventative measure against light damage". Rozanowska M. & Sarna T./ Photochem Photobiol 2005 Nov 1
"blue light alone can damage the powerhouses of the retina cells, called mitochondria, and in particular the DNA of these energy producing cells."Journal of Biological Chemistry 2005 June
"Visible light of short wavelength (blue light) may cause a photochemical injury to the retina, called photoretinitis or blue-light hazard." Okuno T, Saito H, Ojima Evaluation of blue-light hazards from various light sources. J. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;35:104-12.
"the most important damage from blue light involves pigments that accumulate only in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)] cells" which "very efficiently absorb wavelengths in the blue region…this pigment, we now know, is able to initiate phototoxic reactions, that is it can absorb light and initiate reactions in the cell that are damaging". Janet Sparrow of Columbia University as reported by Carol Lindsay in ScienCentral News Aug 11, 2005.
"...continuous exposure to blue light is potentially dangerous to vision." Koide R, Ueda TN, Dawson WW, Hope GM, Ellis A, Somuelson D, Ueda T, Iwabuchi S, Fukuda S, Matsuishi M, Yasuhara H, Ozawa T, Armstrong D. Nippon. Retinal hazard from blue light emitting diode. Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2001 Oct;105(10):687-95.
"...high levels of exposure to blue or visible light may cause ocular damage, especially later in life, and may be related to the development of age-related macular degeneration." Taylor HR, West S, Munoz B, Rosenthal FS, Bressler SB, and Bressler NM. Archives of Ophthalmology 1992; 110:99-104.
"I think chronic blue light is probably damaging." Joshua Dunaief, MD, in Bethke W. Review of Ophthalmology Oct 15 2003; 10(10).
"The high-energy segment of the visible region (400-500 nm) is enormously more hazardous than the low energy portion (from 500-700 nm)." Young RW Survey of Ophthalmology 1988; 32(4): 252-269.
"Visible light of short wavelength (blue light) may cause a photochemical injury to the retina, called photoretinitis or blue-light hazard." Okuno T, Saito H, Ojima J. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;35:104-12.
"[The] Action spectrum for blue-light induced [retinal] damage shows a maximum at 400 nm and 450 nm." Bartlett H, Eperjesi F Nutrition Journal 2003, 2:12.
"The effectiveness of light in inducing photo damage to the retina increases with decreasing wavelength from 500 to 400 nm." Andley UP, L.T. Chylack Jr LTPhotodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 1990; 7:98-105.
"The photoreceptors in the retina...are susceptible to damage by light, particularly blue light. The damage can lead to cell death and diseases." Shaban H, Richter C. Biol Chem 2002 Mar-Apr;383(3-4):537-45.